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    My Journey through the Astronomical Year

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Solar eclipse , Comet ISON, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Mars . . . welcome to November, 2013

COMET ISON UPDATE – NOV  30

 ISON bottom line: Awesome new movies from STERO spacecraft you can see right now – but prospects for naked eye observation very dim – though we’re still talking about a comet and as one scientists said recently – comets are like cats – they have tails and they do what they want.

Best web site I’ve found so far is this NASA blog. Scroll to the movies and the text below that explains them well. This is a rare view of a sun-grazing comet. 

As you look at the images of ISON keep a couple things in mind – first, the Sun is huge – you can fit 109 Earth’s across it’s face – so judge the changing size of the comet by that. Second, ISON is coming from the outer reaches of the Solar System where it is made of the same material from which the Earth and other planets were formed 5 billion years ago – material in its relatively pristine state. That’s one of the things that excites the scientists. Think of it as a space probe in reverse – a probe that not only goes to the outer reach of our neighborhood, but in a real sense goes back in time billions of years.

Of course, the main question has been what will ISON look like after this close-encounter with the Sun and the best answer right now is that it will be a good target for experienced astro imagers with the proper equipment – but it is very doubtful that it will be visible to the naked eye. I’ve updating this page in the hopes that we would be able to observe Comet witht he naked eye  some cool December morning – but it now looks like that will not be the case. But with these special movies it still has proven to be a mind-blowing, visual treat and no one has to get cold or lose sleep to enjoy them. 😉

COMET ISON UPDATE – NOV  19

Got my first look at Comet ISON this morning – sadly, not impressive.

It, of course, may still burst into full glory after it rounds the Sun on Thanksgiving – or it may break up, or it may just be so-so – have to wait and see.

At about 5:35 am when I was looking with 15X70 binoculars it was easy to spot as I scaned between the bright star Spica and even brighter Mercury which was low down, well in the morning twilight. ISON was roughly halfway  between – well, closer to Spica.

Also, a near full moon was still 26 degrees up in the west and washing out all but the brightest stars. Between morning twilight and the Moon these are pretty terrible conditions to see any comet. ISON appeared to me as nothing but a fuzzy star about 13 degrees (little more than one fist) above the southeastern horizon. Here’s a chart –http://observing.skyhound.com/ISON.html

COMET ISON UPDATE – NOV  16

Comet ISON is brightening and the Messenger spacecraft orbiting Mercury is about to get up close and personal not only with ISON, but with a second comet as well -very, very unusual.

Comet ISON is undergoing a sudden brightening – so there’s hope at last that even if we get clouded out now it might put on a good show right after Thanksgiving. And the Mercury flyby more exciting news from a science standpoint.

Right now ISON is in the pre-dawn sky and on the edge of naked eye visibility -and, of course, we have clouds in the forecast! However, the clouds will not impact the view from Mercury where we have a spacecraft circling that planet that can be used to examine not one – but two comets that will fly close by the planet in just a few days.

This is an incredible coincidence – comets can approach the Sun from any angle or direction and the chance that they pass especially close to any given planet are slim – that two comets should pass very close to Mercury in just two days. . . well, read all about it here:

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2013/15nov_twocomets/

I still don’t expect a whole lot from ISON in the next week, but who knows. Seeing it will require getting up early and, of course, very clear skies.

To learn more details about ISON go here  and to follow the latest reports, go here.

COMET ISON UPDATE – NOV  5

COMET ISON is still a fairly faint object visible in large astronomical binoculars and small telescopes in the morning sky – where there are currently three other small comets that are brighter – at this time – than COMET ISON and one of these may become visible to the Naked eye in the next week or two.

I really like the following summary from an excellent comet web site found here.

“How can ISON still be a Great Comet? ISON is running considerably fainter than initially hoped, and this trend has continued into November. But just as there is a chance that it will disintegrate one night, ISON could also flare up, becoming much brighter. In December a long tail may be visible on the pre-dawn horizon, regardless of if it survives or not. This tail could be spectacular to the eye, but even if it isn’t, it could still be spectacular in photographs.  We have no way of knowing, and this is what makes observing comets so much fun. Hang on, get out there as often as you can to have a look, and enjoy the ride!”

To get details on the other three comets – including detailed finder charts, go here.

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With an unusual solar eclipse, perhaps a major comet, and planets galore – November 2013 should be an exciting month for those who look up!

The partial solar eclipse is this Sunday (November 3, 2013) and for those on the East Coast is underway at Sunrise. Also it is better the farther north you are.  But this is really the tail end of an unusual eclipse event, much of which takes place over the Atlantic Ocean. PLEASE KEEP IN MIND THAT WATCHING THIS EVENT REQUIRES SPECIAL PROTECTION FOR YOUR EYES! For details on what you will see from where and when you will see it, go here.

The “maybe major” comet is Comet ISON, of course, which we have been hearing about all year. It’s already well within the range of amateur telescopes and it may brighten enough to be seen with binoculars, or even the naked eye before the month is out – but the best view will probably come the first couple weeks of December.  In all cases this is a morning sky event. No one can give any guarantees on a comet – it may be spectacular, it may be a dud – I think it will likely be somewhere between these extremes. But it is coming close enough to the Sun to break up and if that happens too early in its encounter,  it will be a total dud – happen later and it could make it all the more spectacular – and, of course, the break up might not happen at all.

Comet ISON is in the morning sky now and as it draws near the Sun it will get brighter – but it also will be seen against a sky background that grows lighter because of dawn. This is part of the tension comets usually create – they’re at their best when they’re closest to the Sun, but the closer they get to the Sun the  more into twilight skies they appear.  To learn more details about ISON go here  and to follow the latest reports, go here.

A really easy – and predictable – show no one can miss right now is  that brilliant “star” low in the southwest about half an hour after sunset.  It’s no star, of course, it’s the planet Venus – and it has been hanging around low in the western sky much of the year. But in November it draws closer to Earth as Venus starts to overtake us in our orbit.  This means that through a small telescope you can watch it change form into a miniature crescent moon shape. But while it shows us less surface area as it starts to pass between us and the Sun , it gets brighter because during this time it is also getting closer to us. It gets a little higher as the month goes on and by the end is nearly two fists above the southwestern horizon about half an hour after Sunset.

Meanwhile, over in the eastern sky Jupiter is starting to put on a show at a reasonable hour. It has been with us for months now, but visible only to early risers. In November it brightens and it rises high enough, early enough, for many to see it before going to bed. At the start of the month it is rising at about 10 pm, but then we switch to  Standard Time and it rises at 9 pm. By the end of the month rise time is about 7 pm. At about magnitude 2.5 it is brighter than any star, but can’t hold a candle to Venus.

So near the end of the month and early December a dazzling Venus will be well above the horizon to the south west – then as Venus sets, Jupiter  will be rising to the east. Nice show – though you will probably have to wait another  hour for Jupiter to be easy to see.

Meanwhile, in the morning sky this month we have ISON growing brighter and coming near some familiar objects – the bright star Spica and the planets Mercury and Saturn. From what I’ve read to date I think it’s reasonable to assume it will be a nice binocular object this month and possibly reach naked eye visibility. Key dates put it reasonably close to Spica around November 16 and  Mercury and Saturn  about November 22. But again, I suggest you look at the charts and follow the updates here.  Another place to look for reporst from amateur astronomers following Ison is the the discussion thread on Cloudy Nights found here.

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Look North in November 2013 into the Dragon’s Lair

Click image for larger view. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screen shot.)

Click here for a printer-friendly version of the above chart.

Our north sky map this month is covering a slightly larger area than normal because I want to capture the relationship between Vega and Capella – two of our northernmost guidepost stars – that anchor the north sky in November. Think of them as two cornerstones and a line drawn between them will go quite close to the North Star, Polaris. What’s more, Vega will help us find the head of Draco the Dragon.

Draco is one of the north sky’s more charming constellations, for its long, slithery form does call to mind a dragon. It’s quite easy to pick out, really, but you do need dark skies with little light pollution. Start by locating Vega. The four stars that mark the head of Draco – one is quite faint – will be found roughly halfway between Vega and the two bright stars that mark the end of the cup of the Little Dipper. Having located the head, you really need a chart handy to find the rest of this long, twisting, dragon body – but it is pretty easy, and once you identify it, you won’t forget it.

Draco also harbors a special treat for binocular and small telescope users. That faint star (Nu) that marks one corner of the Dragon’s head? It’s really two, perfectly matched, 4.9 magnitude stars that are far enough apart so they can be split with binoculars – assuming you have good eyes and a really steady hand. In a small telescope they are absolutely delightful and earn their nickname of Dragon’s Eyes. ( There are actually three neat double stars in this region that are a delight for the telescope user. I’ve written about them in the double star observing blog I share with my friend John Nanson.)

Meanwhile, to the east we have a bright half circle of asterisms we’ve been talking about in the previous months. Start with Capella and move on up to the “Bow” of Perseus and from there higher still to the “W” of Cassiopeia. Directly above the Pole you’ll find the “Home Plate” of Cepheus pointing down towards Polaris.

Look east in November 2013 for the “Eye of Sauron” star and its “zombie” planet!

November brings us our southernmost – and northernmost – guidepost stars, Fomalhaut and Capella. And  still a puzzle is the “Zombie planet,”  Fomalhaut b,  described by NASA last year in a Halloween video.  But first, the normal.

The positions of Capella and Fomalhaut in the sky mean that for Northern Hemisphere observers Fomalhaut is the guidepost star we see for the shortest amount of time – and Capella is the one we see the longest.

In fact, for many, Capella is visible during some hour every night of the year – and for those north of latitude 45 degrees, it is circumpolar – that is, it never sets. But lonely – and freshly fascinating – Fomalhaut just puts in a relatively brief appearance low to the south.

From NASA:”This image, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, shows a newly discovered planet, Fomalhaut b, orbiting its parent star, Fomalhaut. The small white box at lower right pinpoints the planet’s location. Fomalhaut b has carved a path along the inner edge of a vast, dusty debris ring encircling Fomalhaut that is 21.5 billion miles across. Fomalhaut b lies 1.8 billion miles inside the ring’s inner edge and orbits 10.7 billion miles from its star.” Click image for larger version.

Fomalhaut is “lonely” because there are few bright stars in its vicinity. It is “freshly fascinating” because early in this century the Hubble Space Telescope got a fantastic picture of a disc of “debris” surrounding it, showing this young star to be in the throes of forming planets. Then in 2008 scientists announced they had actually found a planet circling Fomalhaut (see photo above), the first planet outside our Solar System to be seen with visible light. Cool! Add to this the fact that the Hubble photograph of Fomalhaut could be easily mistaken for the Eye of Sauron, and for fans of the Lord of the Rings movie triology, Fomalhaut becomes especially memorable. (For more on the “Eye of Sauron” go here.)

Why NASA calls it a “Zombie Planet”

More recent information doesn’t completely clear up the mystery – actually it gets weirder –  but they do seem pretty sure the planet is real.

Vital stats for Fomalhaut (FO-mal-ought)

• Brilliance: Magnitude 1.16; its luminosity is the equal of 16 Suns.
• Distance: 25 light years
• Spectral Types: A3V
• Position: 22:57:39, -29:37:20°

After reading this description, click on the chart for a larger version. About an hour after sunset, November evenings offer us an eastern sky filled with a host of asterisms both large and small. A good starting point for the naked eye is the Great Square of Pegasus. From one corner of it you can find Andromeda’s Couch which ties into what I call the “Demon’s Triangle” because it is anchored by the eclipsing variable, Algol – the “Demon Star.” The “W” of Cassiopeia should be obvious – and there are three asterisms shown that are best seen with binoculars. The “Hockey Stick” and “Water Jug” should fit in a low power binocular field, while only half of the “Circlet” will fit. Capella anchors our chart to the north, with Fomalhaut to the south. I included Deneb Kaitos because while it is a little dimmer than Fomalhaut, it could be mistaken for it. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screenshot.)

Click here to download a printer friendly version of the above chart.

Finding Fomalhaut

As always, it’s easiest if you start looking in the east 45 minutes to an hour after sunset when in the twilight only the brightest stars are visible as shown on our chart. Fomalhaut is the brightest star south of southeast and about a fist and a half above the horizon 45 minutes after sunset. Trailing well behind Fomalhaut – to the east – and lower still is a second magnitude star (same brightness as the North Star) called Deneb Kaitos. Don’t mistake it for Fomalhaut.

If you have learned the Great Square – see this post – then the two stars that form the western edge of that square can be used, as pointer stars. Drawing an arrow through those two stars leads you to Fomalhaut. You could also wait until a couple of hours after sunset when you would find Fomalhaut very close to due south. Even then, from my latitude of 41.5° N it is not quite two fists (19°) above the southern horizon.

Ahhh Capella!

Capella is distinctive because it’s not “a” star – it’s two! But these two, bright, yellow suns are so close together that you’ll always see them as one, even if you use a large telescope. Together they make a star that rivals Vega and Altair, now well into our western sky, in brightness. (See Summer Triangle chart here.) In fact Capella is the third brightest star in the Northern Hemisphere – but that’s a tad deceptive because it doesn’t count Sirius – the brightest star that most Northern Hemisphere observers can see, although technically Sirius is in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, since it is below the celestial equator. But you don’t have to worry about such technicalities to enjoy a view of Capella. Just look near the horizon to the northeast. You will need a very clear horizon, however, especially at the start of the month because then Capella will not even be one fist above the horizon.

Just as Fomalhaut is a bit south of southeast, Capella is a bit north of northeast.

It’s easiest to find Capella if you start 45 minutes to an hour after sunset. Choose a spot with a clear horizon to the northeast and watch for a bright star to appear very near the horizon. Like all bright stars near the horizon, Capella will twinkle and flash in different colors because you are seeing it through a lot of atmosphere. It won’t show its soft, golden hue until it is much higher in the sky. Even a veteran skywatcher can be fooled by this. Recently my wife was looking to the northeast on a fall evening and saw what she thought was Capella. But it was so bright and blinking red and green so distinctly, that she changed her mind and decided it was an airplane! (There’s an airport off in that general direction.) When after a minute or so it hadn’t moved, she knew her first thought was correct – but boy it made a convincing airplane!

For me, Capella marks a graceful arc of bright stars and asterisms that circle the north celestial pole. If you have been following these directions for a few months, look at Capella, the “Bow” of Perseus, and the “W” of Cassiopeia to see what I mean. Watching these move in the course of a single night – or from month to month – always gives me a real sense of how, from our vantage point, all the stars appear to circle Polaris.

As mentioned, Capella is really a complex multiple star. Its two main components are both yellow giants dubbed Aa and Ab, but there are two more stars in this family. However, they are a pair of red dwarfs only visible in a telescope and are so far away from the two bright stars that they take more than 1,000 years to complete an orbit. The two bright stars orbit in just 104 days. James B. Kaler, in his book The Hundred Greatest Stars, says this about the Capella twins:

These two magnificent giants are separated by about the distance between Venus and the Sun. A resident on a ‘Jupiter’ ten times further out would see two ‘Suns’ about half a degree across (similar to the Sun in our own sky), separated at maximum by some 6 degrees, one setting right behind the other.
So when you find Capella, pause – picture yourself on the Jupiter-like planet with these twin yellow Suns in your sky!

Vital stats for Capella (kah-PEL-ah)

• Brilliance: Magnitude .08; its luminosity is the equal of 16 Suns.
• Distance: 42 light years
• Spectral Types: G8/G0
• Position: 05:16:41, +45:59:53

In this month’s chart I identify three relatively dim asterisms as good objects for your binoculars – there’s also the magnificent Andromeda Galaxy barely visible to the naked eye if you have very dark skies, but certainly a small blurry patch in binoculars. The arrows on the chart show two paths to tracking it down by star hopping. Found it? Pat yourself on the back. You are looking at about 300 billion stars and you are looking back in time about 2.5 million years!

The “Water Jug” of Aquarius is a nice binocular object. To me it looks just like a three-bladed airplane propeller.  The “Circlet” is part of Pisces and while quite faint, is easy to trace out in binoculars, though you will have to scan about a bit to see it all. It doesn’t fit in a single field of view – at least in most binoculars.

What I dub the “Hockey Stick” are the three brightest stars of Aries, the Ram. The faintest of these is an easy and beautiful double – a nearly perfectly matched pair if you have small telescope, point it at them and enjoy.

Still with us!

Other bright guide stars and asterisms introduced in previous months that are still readily seen include the Summer Triangle of Altair, Deneb, and Vega, which is high over head and crossing into the western sky. Arcturus is just above the horizon in the west, the Big Dipper just west of north and hugging the horizon, and the Teapot is diving into the ground in the southwest. And, of course, we have the “Bow” of Perseus with “Algol” the “Demon” star, the “W” of Cassiopeia, the “home plate” of Cepheus, Andromeda’s Couch, and the Great Square.

Total solar eclipse November 13/14 – live IN Australia or live FROM Australia

My friends Dom and Daphne will be heading for Cairns, Australia for their first  total  solar eclipse shortly after sunrise November 14 (Australian time) – and so will a team from NASA, among others, who will web cast the total solar eclipse on November 13 (ET) that Dom and Daphne hope to witness live. Sure hope they’ve made all the proper sacrifices to the weather gods!

I say November 13/14 because it depends which side of the International Dateline you are on exactly which day you see this event – and it depends on exactly where you are – or where your web cast is originating from – exactly when the event takes place. But for those of us on the East Coast of America it will be roughly between 3:00 and 5:30 pm on Tuesday, November 13, 2012 that we’ll get to see the live web cast of the eclipse. And, of course, the web cast will depend on weather conditions as well – but there are several web cast from different locations, so hopefully one or more will be cloud free.

Dsphene writes: “We fly into Cairns and then go to Port Douglas. Early in the morning of the 14th we’ll be driven to a farm from where we’ll watch the eclipse.”  They are in Sydney, so this is no small hike for them. But the event is exciting enough to draw about 50,000 other eclipse watchers from around the world to the same general area of Australia where they will be.  Daphne included this map.

Cairns will  have 2 minutes of totality just an hour after daybreak  with the sun at an altitude of just 14° -and that should mean some fantastic photos that include foreground objects.

My primary target will be the NASA broadcast coming from the same area Dom and Daphne are – Cairns. It begins live from there at 5 am on the 14 there time – for those of us on the East Coast that will be 3 pm ET Tuesday, November 13.

While the eclipse won’t actually start there for about 45 minutes, I’ll be checking in right at 3 pm to make sure the connection is good and to see how the weather is. If there are problems there, I plan to try some of the other eclipse sites listed below.

While I at first turned up my nose to these types of web cast – it really is impossible to duplicate the experience of being there – I’ve changed my tune considerably having watched a few events of this sort. The live web experience is really the next best thing to being there – better than just seeing an instant replay some time later. (Not entirely sure why that is so, but that’s been my experience.)

And it will be fun to know I have friends there experiencing their first total ecclipse along with many other Australians and many who have travelled there. Australia is the only place that will get the total eclipse – well, the only dry place. The Moon’s shadow will sweep across the Pacific and there are cruise ships that will do their best to position themselves in cloud-free areas so their passengers can watch the event.

Oh –  and start making plans for August 21, 2017 when a total solar eclipse will come to the United States! Viewing this one by Web is a good way to whet your appetite for that event.

To learn more about solar eclipses, go here.

Events November 2012: The King, his Court and a host of binocular delights in the east!

“What’s that bright star in the east,” a friend asked recently?

“Early in the evening?” I queried. “Yes.”

“Got to be Jupiter!”

And, of course, it is. But wait, there’s more! To the naked eye Jupiter is a dazzler. This month it shines at magnitude -2.8 and is in the company of two other dazzlers, Capella (magnitude 0.06) and Aldebaran (magnitude 0.84).

Jupiter also can teach you something about our journey around the Sun – how stars and tend to rise about a half hour earlier each week.  In our charts below we show Jupiter  on November 1, November 15, and November 30. In each case it is roughly 10 degrees – one fist – above the horizon – but each chart is for an hour earlier – the first for three hours after sunset, the second for two, and the last for one hour when Jupiter will still dazzle in the dying evening twilight.

But the real fun with Jupiter this month is to use your binoculars to try to spot the four Galilean Moons – Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto – his “court.”  And whether or not you can do that, be sure to turn your binoculars on two nearby star clusters – the Hyades, just 153 light years away, and the incomparable Pleiades, about 400 light years away – and yes, keep those distances in mind as you look and you will realize that the two clusters are roughly the same size, but distance makes one appear smaller, though no less brilliant with its hot, young stars. (Be sure to click on the following charts for a larger version. These are all made by modifying Starry Nights Pro screen shots.)

On November 1, 2012, there’s a bonus with the waning Moon in the picture. It a nice binocular site in itself which is good because it will tend to wash out the nearby star clusters.

Galileo always gets his name associated with Jupiter’s Moons because in 1610 he turned his telescope on them and published his results – but he didn’t get to name them. Well, he tried. He called them the “Medicean Stars”  after grand duke of Tuscany Cosimo II de’ Medici and Cosimo’s three brothers.  But that didn’t stick, instead, as Rosaly Lopes tells us in her wonderful Sky and Telescope article on planet names in the November 2012 issue, Simon Marius a German astronomer,  discovered them independently and at the urging of the famous Kepler applied the names that have stuck with these four moons.  Jupiter actually has 67 moons at last count, but you aren’t going to find the others in your binoculars. These are the big ones that even Galileo’s primitive telescope revealed.

So how do you go about seeing them yourself? Well don’t simply swing your binoculars up there and expect to see them. Maybe with your bright, young eyes you can. But most likely you’ll have to work at it a bit. Take your time. They are close to Jupiter and generally lost in its glare. But with patience you should find one or two – and if you don’t see them after a little effort, then the problem probably is that you aren’t holding your binoculars steady enough. Try holding them against a tree, the corner of the house – anything for support.  Ideally you would mount them on a tripod and in many places they sell mounts such as this for doing just that – well worth the small investment, by the way, and these little mounts work with almost all binoculars.

Another tip – do make sure your binoculars are in sharp focus. Many casual binocular users don’t know how to do this – they simply turn the center focusing knob. but that just gives you a good rough focus. For most of us our two eyes are not exactly the same, so to focus a binocular so it works best for you, do this:

Close your right eye and focus with the center knob using only the left eye and left side of the binocular.  Once the image is sharp there, close the left eye and use the  diopter adjustment on the right eyepiece to bring that side into focus. ( You usually turn the right eyepiece to make this diopter adjustment.) From that point on you should be able to  focus those binoculars by using just the center focus – but if you try another pair, you’ll need to adjust them for your eyes in similar fashion.

And what exactly can you expect to see? Up to four star-like objects on a rough line with the equator of the planet. You may only see one or two depending on how close they are to the planet.

Which is which? To learn that, go here  and use the excellent little java script utility to tell you which Moon is where at any given time. With binoculars you want the right-side up view. With small telescopes it is much easier, of course, to see these Moons, but a telescope will change the orientation and this script allows you to change that orientation to match your telescope’s view.

Is there any other planetary action this Month? Yes – but Jupiter is the main show. Saturn, Venus, and Mercury all make a nice appearance in the morning twilight near the end of the month. And Mars is setting in evening twilight – or nearly so.

In the early morning hours of November 17 there should be an excess of meteors – about 20 hours – from the Leonid Meteor Shower. This shower has from time to time yield a much more spectacular show, but right now it is in a down period. The Geminids in December should be much better.

Look east in November 2012 for the “Eye of Sauron” star and its “zombie” planet!

November brings us our southernmost – and northernmost – guidepost stars, Fomalhaut and Capella. And  fresh off the press of NASA for Halloween – a zombie planet! Now you see it – now you don’t – now you do!  But first, the normal.

The positions of Capella and Fomalhaut in the sky mean that for Northern Hemisphere observers Fomalhaut is the guidepost star we see for the shortest amount of time – and Capella is the one we see the longest.

In fact, for many, Capella is visible during some hour every night of the year – and for those north of latitude 45 degrees, it is circumpolar – that is, it never sets. But lonely – and freshly fascinating – Fomalhaut just puts in a relatively brief appearance low to the south.

From NASA:”This image, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, shows the newly discovered planet, Fomalhaut b, orbiting its parent star, Fomalhaut. The small white box at lower right pinpoints the planet’s location. Fomalhaut b has carved a path along the inner edge of a vast, dusty debris ring encircling Fomalhaut that is 21.5 billion miles across. Fomalhaut b lies 1.8 billion miles inside the ring’s inner edge and orbits 10.7 billion miles from its star.” Click image for larger version.

Fomalhaut is “lonely” because there are few bright stars in its vicinity. It is “freshly fascinating” because early in this century the Hubble Space Telescope got a fantastic picture of a disc of “debris” surrounding it, showing this young star to be in the throes of forming planets. Then in 2008 scientists announced they had actually found a planet circling Fomalhaut (see photo above), the first planet outside our Solar System to be seen with visible light. Cool! Add to this the fact that the Hubble photograph of Fomalhaut could be easily mistaken for the Eye of Sauron, and for fans of the Lord of the Rings movie triology, Fomalhaut becomes especially memorable. (For more on the “Eye of Sauron” go here.)

But wait, this just in!

Vital stats for Fomalhaut (FO-mal-ought)

• Brilliance: Magnitude 1.16; its luminosity is the equal of 16 Suns.
• Distance: 25 light years
• Spectral Types: A3V
• Position: 22:57:39, -29:37:20°

After reading this description, click on the chart for a larger version. About an hour after sunset, November evenings offer us an eastern sky filled with a host of asterisms both large and small. A good starting point for the naked eye is the Great Square of Pegasus. From one corner of it you can find Andromeda’s Couch which ties into what I call the “Demon’s Triangle” because it is anchored by the eclipsing variable, Algol – the “Demon Star.” The “W” of Cassiopeia should be obvious – and there are three asterisms shown that are best seen with binoculars. The “Hockey Stick” and “Water Jug” should fit in a low power binocular field, while only half of the “Circlet” will fit. Capella anchors our chart to the north, with Fomalhaut to the south. I included Deneb Kaitos because while it is a little dimmer than Fomalhaut, it could be mistaken for it. Wait an hour or so and you’ll see brilliant Jupiter rise in the east to dominate this portion of the sky in 1012. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screenshot.)

Click here to download a printer friendly version of the above chart.

Finding Fomalhaut

As always, it’s easiest if you start looking in the east 45 minutes to an hour after sunset when in the twilight only the brightest stars are visible as shown on our chart. Fomalhaut is the brightest star south of southeast and about a fist and a half above the horizon 45 minutes after sunset. I emphasize “star” because a bit later int he evening in 2012 Jupiter is in the  east as well, but significantly brighter. Trailing well behind Fomalhaut – to the east – and lower still is a second magnitude star (same brightness as the North Star) called Deneb Kaitos. Don’t mistake it for Fomalhaut.

If you have learned the Great Square – see this post – then the two stars that form the western edge of that square can be used, as pointer stars. Drawing an arrow through those two stars leads you to Fomalhaut. You could also wait until a couple of hours after sunset when you would find Fomalhaut very close to due south. Even then, from my latitude of 41.5° N it is not quite two fists (19°) above the southern horizon.

Ahhh Capella!

Capella is distinctive because it’s not “a” star – it’s two! But these two, bright, yellow suns are so close together that you’ll always see them as one, even if you use a large telescope. Together they make a star that rivals Vega and Altair, now well into our western sky, in brightness. (See Summer Triangle chart here.) In fact Capella is the third brightest star in the Northern Hemisphere – but that’s a tad deceptive because it doesn’t count Sirius – the brightest star that most Northern Hemisphere observers can see, although technically Sirius is in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, since it is below the celestial equator. But you don’t have to worry about such technicalities to enjoy a view of Capella. Just look near the horizon to the northeast. You will need a very clear horizon, however, especially at the start of the month because then Capella will not even be one fist above the horizon.

Just as Fomalhaut is a bit south of southeast, Capella is a bit north of northeast.

It’s easiest to find Capella if you start 45 minutes to an hour after sunset. Choose a spot with a clear horizon to the northeast and watch for a bright star to appear very near the horizon. Like all bright stars near the horizon, Capella will twinkle and flash in different colors because you are seeing it through a lot of atmosphere. It won’t show its soft, golden hue until it is much higher in the sky. Even a veteran skywatcher can be fooled by this. Recently my wife was looking to the northeast on a fall evening and saw what she thought was Capella. But it was so bright and blinking red and green so distinctly, that she changed her mind and decided it was an airplane! (There’s an airport off in that general direction.) When after a minute or so it hadn’t moved, she knew her first thought was correct – but boy it made a convincing airplane!

For me, Capella marks a graceful arc of bright stars and asterisms that circle the north celestial pole. If you have been following these directions for a few months, look at Capella, the “Bow” of Perseus, and the “W” of Cassiopeia to see what I mean. Watching these move in the course of a single night – or from month to month – always gives me a real sense of how, from our vantage point, all the stars appear to circle Polaris.

As mentioned, Capella is really a complex multiple star. Its two main components are both yellow giants dubbed Aa and Ab, but there are two more stars in this family. However, they are a pair of red dwarfs only visible in a telescope and are so far away from the two bright stars that they take more than 1,000 years to complete an orbit. The two bright stars orbit in just 104 days. James B. Kaler, in his book The Hundred Greatest Stars, says this about the Capella twins:

These two magnificent giants are separated by about the distance between Venus and the Sun. A resident on a ‘Jupiter’ ten times further out would see two ‘Suns’ about half a degree across (similar to the Sun in our own sky), separated at maximum by some 6 degrees, one setting right behind the other.
So when you find Capella, pause – picture yourself on the Jupiter-like planet with these twin yellow Suns in your sky!

Vital stats for Capella (kah-PEL-ah)

• Brilliance: Magnitude .08; its luminosity is the equal of 16 Suns.
• Distance: 42 light years
• Spectral Types: G8/G0
• Position: 05:16:41, +45:59:53

In this month’s chart I identify three relatively dim asterisms as good objects for your binoculars – there’s also the magnificent Andromeda Galaxy barely visible to the naked eye if you have very dark skies, but certainly a small blurry patch in binoculars. The arrows on the chart show two paths to tracking it down by star hopping. Found it? Pat yourself on the back. You are looking at about 300 billion stars and you are looking back in time about 2.5 million years!

The “Water Jug” of Aquarius is a nice binocular object. To me it looks just like a three-bladed airplane propeller.  The “Circlet” is part of Pisces and while quite faint, is easy to trace out in binoculars, though you will have to scan about a bit to see it all. It doesn’t fit in a single field of view – at least in most binoculars.

What I dub the “Hockey Stick” are the three brightest stars of Aries, the Ram. The faintest of these is an easy and beautiful double – a nearly perfectly matched pair if you have small telescope, point it at them and enjoy.

Still with us!

Other bright guide stars and asterisms introduced in previous months that are still readily seen include the Summer Triangle of Altair, Deneb, and Vega, which is high over head and crossing into the western sky. Arcturus is just above the horizon in the west, the Big Dipper just west of north and hugging the horizon, and the Teapot is diving into the ground in the southwest. And, of course, we have the “Bow” of Perseus with “Algol” the “Demon” star, the “W” of Cassiopeia, the “home plate” of Cepheus, Andromeda’s Couch, and the Great Square.

Look North in November 2012 into the Dragon’s Lair

Click image for larger view. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screen shot.)

Click here for a printer-friendly version of the above chart.

Our north sky map this month is covering a slightly larger area than normal because I want to capture the relationship between Vega and Capella – two of our northernmost guidepost stars – that anchor the north sky in November. Think of them as two cornerstones and a line drawn between them will go quite close to the North Star, Polaris. What’s more, Vega will help us find the head of Draco the Dragon.

Draco is one of the north sky’s more charming constellations, for its long, slithery form does call to mind a dragon. It’s quite easy to pick out, really, but you do need dark skies. Start by locating Vega. The four stars that mark the head of Draco – one is quite faint – will be found roughly halfway between Vega and the two bright stars that mark the end of the cup of the Little Dipper. Having located the head, you really need a chart handy to find the rest of this long, twisting, dragon body – but it is pretty easy, and once you identify it, you won’t forget it.

Draco also harbors a special treat for binocular and small telescope users. That faint star (Nu) that marks one corner of the Dragon’s head? It’s really two, perfectly matched, 4.9 magnitude stars that are far enough apart so they can be split with binoculars – assuming you have good eyes and a really steady hand. In a small telescope they are absolutely delightful and earn their nickname of Dragon’s Eyes. ( There are actually three neat double stars in this region that are a delight for the telescope user. I’ve written about them in the double star observing blog I share with my friend John Nanson.)

Meanwhile, to the east we have a bright half circle of asterisms we’ve been talking about in the previous months. Start with Capella and move on up to the “Bow” of Perseus and from there higher still to the “W” of Cassiopeia. Directly above the Pole you’ll find the “Home Plate” of Cepheus pointing down towards Polaris.

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