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  • Rapt in Awe

    My Journey through the Astronomical Year

    Think of this as a "companion text" to this, the main web site. Not required reading, butI hope you'll find it interesting and helpful.

Events for March 2014: Planet Sandwich Seasoned with a Sprinkling of Zodiacal Dust

Two realities - The image above gives you an idea of the true size and look of the planets visible in March skies. (From left, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) That's one reality. What you see with your naked eye looks like stars - though very bright ones.

Two realities – The image above gives you an idea of the true size and look of the planets visible in March skies. (From left, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) That’s one reality. What you see with your naked eye is much different.  Planets look like stars – though very bright ones  and some with distinctive hues.

At dusk Jupiter dominates the night sky high overhead –  think of it as one slice of bread for our sandwich. During morning twilight Venus dominates the sky low in the east – that’s the other slice. Between we have Mars on the evening side of midnight and Saturn on the morning side of midnight.

The “seasoning” – Zodiacal Light  – is interplanetary dust that forms a soft cone of light rising out of the west about 80 minutes after sunset – but is only visible if your skies are dark enough.

In total this makes a tasty show at any time of night to supplement the annual,  ever-advancing march of the stars. Here’s where and when to look.

The Zodiacal Light is the most challenging and can’t compete with the Moon’s light, so it’s available for the first two nights of the month, then comes into view again starting on the 18th and going for the rest of March, 2014.  To see it you need a clear sky to the west with no light pollution in that direction. You also need to allow your eyes to dark adapt. for 20 minutes. What you’re looking for is something roughly akin to the Milky Way in brightness, but in a soft pyramid shape that starts out wide as it rises from the horizon and leans to the south as it reaches one-third or more up the sky in the general direction of Jupiter. It’s really quite an amazing feature.

If you see it, reflect on this explanation from Wikipedia:

The material producing the zodiacal light is located in a lens-shaped volume of space centered on the Sun and extending well out beyond the orbit of Earth. This material is known as the interplanetary dust cloud. Since most of the material is located near the plane of the Solar System, the zodiacal light is seen along the ecliptic. The amount of material needed to produce the observed zodiacal light is amazingly small. If it were in the form of 1 mm particles, each with the same albedo (reflecting power) as Earth’s Moon, each particle would be 8 km from its neighbors.

For the metrically-challenged (that includes me) that means one dust particle every five miles! In the light of that information, it’s absolutely awesome if you see any thing at all!

Jupiter dominates the stars of Gemini, including the two bright twins to the left, Castor and Pollux.  In the midst of the brightest stars in our skies - the Winter Hexagon - it is the brightest of them all.

Highly recommended that you click this image for larger version. Hard to see the stars otherwise.

Jupiter  is on top these March nights, sharing the same general area of sky as the Gemini Twins. I took the picture (above) of it in late February – it’s position in March won’t change much, though it will get a little dimmer, it will still be much brighter than any star. As always, it’s fun to see if you can hold your binoculars steady enough to detect one of its four largest Moons. When it’s high like this you’re looking through less air and they may be easier to spot – but then, it’s a  bit hard on the neck to look so high in the sky while holding binoculars.

Again. to see any of Jupiter’s Moons your eyes have to be dark adapted, its best to use the largest, most powerful binoculars you can hold, such as 10X50, and you need an idea what to expect. The moons will be roughly in line with Jupiter’s equator – but at any given moment the number visible will vary, as will their distance from the planet, and which side they may be on. (They can all be on one side, they can be split two to a side, etc.) Jupiter together with its Moon – even when they are most distant, are only going to take up about 1/20th of the typical binocular field.

Here’s the sort of thing you are hoping to see:

How Jupiter’s moon might appear at one specific moment – in this case a moment when they were all on the same side of the planet. Of course the next night the view could be quite different. The letters stand for Europa, Io, Ganymede, and Callisto.

If this is your first time looking for the moons, do yourself a favor. Go to this page at the Sky and Telescope Web site and open the JavaScipt utility. It will tell you right where the moons are – and which is which – for any given moment.

As Jupiter dims a bit during the month, Mars becomes quite bright reaching magnitude -1.3 by the end of the month, and shines with a distinctive reddish hue. That’s  almost as bright as Sirius, but is no challenge to Jupiter, both of which appear white.

Click image for larger version. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screen shot.)

Click image for larger version. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screen shot.)

It rises about 3.5 hours after Sunset at the start of the month, but comes up during evening twilight at the end of the month. Generally it will be well placed for naked eye observing about an hour after it rises – those with small telescopes may want to wait another hour or two for a better view. That’s why I see it primarily as a late evening object.

You’ll find it by looking to the east about four hours after sunset as March begins. The Big Dipper will be high in the northeast. Follow the curve of it’s handle down to the bright star Arcturus. Continue this curve and you will come to Mars, roughly five degrees from the bright blue star, Spica. (Remember: When low on the horizon bright stars and planets will appear to sparkle and change color because you are looking through so much air.) While these relationships will remain the same, as the month goes on Mars will be rising earlier and earlier.

Click image for larger version. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screen shot.)

Click image for larger version. (Prepared from Starry Nights Pro screen shot.)

Saturn still is best seen in the early morning hours, though it rises just before midnight in the southeast. I think the best guide to it is the triangle it forms with Arcturus and Mars. Of the three corners of this triangle, Saturn is dimmest, shining with a soft yellowish light. However, it still outshines the stars in its vicinity.

You can’t miss Venus if you’re up an hour before sunrise. It actually comes up a couple hours before sunrise and in morning twilight is well above the southeast horizon an hour before sunrise. At about magnitude -4.7 (it gets a bit dimmer towards the end of March) it simply outshines everything except the Sun and Moon, so there’s no mistaking it and no difficulty finding it. Just look in the right general direction at the right time.

On March 27, 2014 a very thin, waning crescent Moon should fit in the same binocular field with Venus roughly three degrees up and to the left.

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